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Vibration Monitoring, Analysis, Alignment & Balancing



In today’s highly competitive marketplace, it is more important than ever that the production plant operates in a safe and reliable way. Unscheduled outages caused by plant breakdown can be very costly and engineers must use every possible means at their disposal to maximize plant reliability and performance.

Predictive maintenance, which incorporates condition-based maintenance, is a vitally important technical approach to the maintenance of rotating and reciprocating machines. Sadly, however, many organizations never manage to achieve high performance in this field because they are not able to deal with the complexities associated with the most powerful and important condition-based maintenance technique, which is vibration monitoring.

Course Objectives:

At the end of this course the participants will be able to:

  • Understand the measurement and characteristics of vibration signals, and the ways in which vibration data can be stored and represented
  • Comprehensive Understand knowledge of vibration-based fault detection and diagnostic techniques, and the practical implementation of these techniques
  • Make detailed and reliable diagnoses for a range of common machinery and component types
  • Understand the principles and practice of the balancing of routine rotating machines
  • Understand how to use vibration-based methods to achieve high-quality balance on routine rotating machinery. Note that the balancing of flexible rotor machines such as steam/gas turbines and axial compressors is a highly specialist activity and is NOT included within the scope of this course
  • Understand why vibration monitoring systems and approaches often lead to disappointing results and how these pitfalls can be avoided

Targeted Audience:

  • Operation and Maintenance Operators
  • Supervisors & Technicians
  • Facility Engineers
  • Utility Engineers
  • Anyone requiring a working level knowledge of rotating equipment & compressors
  • Technical Professionals dealing with condition monitoring, reliability, and integrity analysis

Course Outlines:

Unit 1: Vibration And its Measurement:

  • Components of a vibration signal
  • Vibration transducers
  • Overall and spectral vibration
  • Monitoring point location
  • Transducer mounting
  • Common symptoms
  • Time and frequency domains
  • Frequency domain instrumentation
  • Fast Fourier transforms
  • Displacement and proximity probes
  • Transducer selection, calibration, care, and maintenance

Unit 2: Vibration Symptoms of Common Machine Faults:

  • Imbalance issues
  • Looseness issues
  • Signal distortion
  • Harmonic content
  • Inter-harmonics
  • Misalignment
  • The distinction between angular and lateral effects
  • Vibration level classification
  • ISO standards
  • Peak and RMS levels
  • Dynamic range
  • Use of FFT analyzers
  • Constant percentage bandwidth spectra
  • Automated CPB spectrum comparison
  • Spectral zoom
  • Case studies

Unit 3: Balance Problems and Vibration-Based Balance Correction:

  • Rigid rotor and flexible rotor machines
  • Static and dynamic balancing of rigid rotors
  • Balance quality
  • Residual imbalance
  • Types of imbalance
  • In situ balancing
  • The use of balancing machines
  • Measurement set-ups
  • Rules on thumb for trial mass location
  • Single plane balancing
  • Two-plane balance procedures
  • Why you have to be a specialist to balance flexible rotor machines
  • Case studies

Unit 4: Fundamentals of Bearing And Gear Vibration:

  • Bearing problems calculation of bearing frequencies
  • Pulse trains and line spectra
  • Loaded element modulation
  • Trending fault development and predicting remaining useful life (RUF)
  • Gear problems
  • Gear wear
  • Toothmesh harmonics
  • Ghost components
  • Gear fatigue
  • Modulation effects
  • Bent shafts and gear misalignment
  • Case studies

Unit 5: Vibration-Based Fault Diagnosis:

  • Time-domain averaging
  • Crest factor
  • Sampling, digitising and aliasing
  • Frequency and phase response
  • Band selectable analysis (BSA)
  • RMS and linear averaging
  • Real-time bandwidth and dynamic range
  • Case studies
  • What vibration monitoring CANNOT do
  • Overall review of concepts learned and how they can be applied in practice

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